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Reconciling the two dominant development models of the Washington Consensus (WC) and Beijing Model (BM) remains a critical challenge in the literature. The challenge is even more demanding when emerging development paradigms like the Liberal Institutional Pluralism (LIP) and New Structural Economics (NSE) schools have to be integrated. While the latter has recognized both State and market failures but failed to provide a unified theory, the former has left the challenging concern of how institutional diversity matter in the development process. We synthesize perspectives from over 150 recently published papers on development and Sino-African relations in order to present the relevance of both the WC and BM in the long-term and short-run respectively. While the paper provides a unified theory by reconciling the WC and the BM to complement the NSE, it at the same time presents a case for economic rights and political rights as short-run and long-run development priorities respectively. By reconciling the WC with the BM, the study contributes at the same to macroeconomic NSE literature of unifying a development theory and to the LIP literature on institutional preferences with stages of development. Hence, the proposed reconciliation takes into account the structural and institutional realities of nations at difference stages of the process of development.

 


Purpose In this paper, we introduce firm heterogeneity in the context of a model of non-compliance with minimum wage legislation.

Design/methodology/approach – Theoretical modeling under government compliance policy and wages & employment under non compliance.

Findings – The introduction of heterogeneity in the ease with which firms can be monitored for non compliance allows us to show that non-compliance will persist in sectors which are relatively difficult to monitor, despite the government implementing non stochastic monitoring. Moreover, we show that the incentive not to comply is an increasing function of the level of the minimum wage and increasing function of the gap between the minimum wage and the competitive wage rate.

Originality/value We have shown why non compliance persists in certain sectors of activity despite frequent inspection by government agencies.

 


This paper examines how Africa´s share in the contribution to global scientific knowledge can be boosted with existing Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) mechanisms. The findings which broadly indicate that tight IPRs are correlated with knowledge contribution can be summarized in two main points. First, the enshrinement of IPRs laws in a country´s Constitution is a good condition for knowledge economy. Secondly, while Main IP laws, WIPO treaties and bilateral treaties are positively correlated with scientific publications, the IPRs law channel has a negative correlation. Whereas the study remains expositional, it does however offer interesting insights into the need for IPRs in the promotion of knowledge contribution within sampled countries of the continent. Other policy implications are discussed.

 


Poverty has remained a stubborn challenge in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria amidst abundant natural resources. The adult population of the Niger Delta especially women are the most affected and financially excluded. The sheer complexity of the Niger Delta with coastal waterways, creeks and islands creates unique challenges that cannot be underestimated.  A clear understanding of the link between financial inclusion and poverty at the rural level is key to optimal design, innovation and implement of financial services necessary for reduction of poverty. Existing literature on financial inclusion is extended in this paper by focusing on micro regional study such as the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. The study surveyed the extent of poverty using monthly income distribution, and degree of financial inclusion using access and usage of products and services. Findings show that women are more financially excluded. That since the population is agrarian in nature, oil and gas spillage have polluted the environment with no place to farm rendering the entire population poor with no fertile land for livelihood. Findings also shows that majority of the population are unbanked and do not know how to use telephones for banking even when they have. Majority of the population are highly discouraged using financial products and services especially ATM for fear of debiting without payment, long queues, far distance to places of location, high interest rates on loans and difficulty in accessing credit from financial institutions.   Findings from the study suggest that the provisions of optimal digital financial services and products in this rural community with adequate education and advocacy for all the population will broaden financial inclusion, thereby contributing to poverty reduction.


La présente étude a consisté à effectuer une identification et une évaluation descriptive des niveaux de responsabilité des acteurs dans le problème de financement des PME du Cameroun en adoptant une approche hypothético-déductive. Ce d´autant plus qu´au Cameroun en plus d´un paysage d´entrepreneuriat timide, le secteur privé est constitué à plus de 90% de PME peu viable faute de financement; Situation qui tend à s´accentuer avec l´avènement des crises financières. Sur la base des données d´enquête auprès des acteurs du financement à partir d´un échantillon de 413 PME du Cameroun, les résultats de notre analyse montrent que le déficit de financement externe est expliqué à la fois par le comportement des trois acteurs dans le processus que sont : L´état qui devrait prendre des mesures d´assainissement du circuit du financement pour permettre au secteur financier de jouer son rôle et aux promoteurs des PME d´éviter des barrières à l´entrée pour en bénéficier ; Les promoteurs des PME qui devraient maximiser leur chance de bénéficier des offres de financement ; Les institutions financières qui embrayer le pas à l´état en assurant l´objectivité dans mécanisme de financement des PME.

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