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Monetary unions are characterized by contemporary institutional arrangements that entrust monetary policy to a supranational entity while fiscal policies are framed by rules imposed on the budget deficit. Limits on public deficits are usually justified by the idea that government deficits reduce national savings, which ultimately reducesdomestic investment and economic growth. However, this idea that domestic savings must necessarily increase if investment increases cannot be taken for granted. Moreover, it is possible that within the union, countries reveal different saving-investment causality, which is capable of rendering considerable credibility and effectiveness of budgetary rules of government deficits systematic prohibition as a means to revitalize investment. This study raises the question of domestic savings-investment causality in the WAEMU zone. It has been determined in each country from a methodology based on co integration vector representations analyze leading to error correction. The existence of a causality heterogeneity between savings-investment in the WAEMU zone leads to consider a new model of fiscal coordination incorporating this heterogeneity, including the adoption of a new budget rule more flexible based on a structural balance without public investment.

 


Dans un contexte de tension monétaire internationale et de survie du Franc CFA dépendant de l´euro du fait de la convertibilité permanente, l´objectif de cet article est d´étudier l´impact que pourrait avoir une telle situation sur les transactions économiques des PAZF en général et de la CEMAC en particulier. Le taux de change effectif réel (TCER) est un indicateur de compétitivité pertinent sous réserve que la productivité globale reste inchangée, ce qui semble être le cas pour la zone franc depuis 1994 (Joufelkit, 2005). Les résultats ont permis de confirmer nos hypothèses de départ. En général, l´on constate une nette amélioration de la compétitivité au travers du TCER à partir de 2010 ; également, le bien-être en terme quantitatif évolue également à la hausse. En guise de perspective, il serait bon de faire des simulations de différents scénarii des effets de cette guerre monétaire sur notre zone géographique d´étude ; ceci pour pourvoir mettre sur pied une théorie en intelligence économique, permettant l´atteinte du statut de « pays émergent » quel que soit le calendrier des différents pays de la CEMAC.


A previous analysis of the impact of formal institutions on the knowledge economy of 22 Middle-Eastern and Sub-Sahara African countries during the 1996-2010 time period concluded that formal institutions were necessary, but inadequate, determinants of the knowledge economy. To extend that study, this paper claims that globalization induces peace and stability, which affects governance and through governance the knowledge economy. The claim addresses one weakness of previous research that did not consider the effects on the knowledge economy of globalization. We model the proposition as a three-stage process in four hypotheses, and estimate each hypothesis using robust estimators that are capable of dealing with the usual statistical problems without sacrificing economic relevance and significance. The results indicate that globalization has varying effects on peace and stability, and peace and stability affect governance differently depending on what kind of globalization induces it. For instance, the effects on governance induced by globalization defined as trade are stronger than those resulting from globalization taken to be foreign direct investment. Hence, we conclude that foreign direct investment is not a powerful mechanism for stimulating and sustaining the knowledge economy in our sample of countries. However, since globalization-induced peace and stability have both positive and negative effects on governance simultaneously, we also conclude that while the prospect for knowledge economy in African countries is dim, it is still realistic and attainable as long as these countries continue to engage in the kind of globalization that does indeed induce peace and stability. We further conclude that there is a need for a sharper focus on economic and institutional governance than on general governance as one possible extension of this paper.

 


In this paper, we examine global trajectories, dynamics, and tendencies of software piracy to ease the benchmarking of current efforts towards harmonizing the standards and enforcements of Intellectual Property Rights (henceforth IPRs) protection worldwide. Our empirical exercise is based on 15 different panel regressions, which together consists of 99 countries. The richness of the dataset allows us to disaggregate countries into fundamental characteristics of business software piracy based on income-levels (high-income, lower-middle-income, upper-middle-income and low-income), legal-origins (English common-law, French civil-law, German civil-law and, Scandinavian civil-law) and, regional proximity (South Asia, Europe & Central Asia, East Asia & the Pacific, Middle East & North Africa, Latin America & the Caribbean and, Sub-Saharan Africa). Our main finding suggest that, a genuine timeframe for standardizing IPRs laws in the fight against software piracy is most feasible within a horizon of 4.3 to 10.4 years. In other words, full (100%) convergence within the specified timeframe will mean the enforcements of IPRs regimes without distinction of nationality or locality within identified fundamental characteristics of software piracy. The absence of convergence (in absolute and conditional terms) for the World panel indicates that, blanket policies may not be effective unless they are contingent on the prevailing trajectories, dynamics and tendencies of software piracy. Policy implications and caveats are also discussed.

 


This chapter complements exiting African liberalization literature by providing fresh patterns of two main areas. First, it assesses whether African banking institutions have benefited from liberalization policies in terms of bank returns. Second, it models bank return and return uncertainty in the context of openness policies to examine fresh patterns for the feasibility of common policy initiatives. The empirical evidence is based on 28 African countries for the period 1999-2010. Varying non-overlapping intervals and autoregressive orders are employed for robustness purposes. The findings show that, while trade openness has increased bank returns and return uncertainties, financial openness and institutional liberalization have decreased bank returns and reduced return uncertainty respectively. But for some scanty evidence of convergence in return on equity, there is overwhelming absence of catch-up among sampled countries. Implications for regional integration and portfolio diversification are discussed.

 

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